Thursday, February 23, 2017

Travels of a T-shirt

In her quest to unravel the mystery of how her cotton t-shirt came to be, economist Pietra Rivoli has not just discovered a great deal about the textile industry. She has learned to see the world from a myriad of perspectives - historian, agriculturist, manufacturer, environmentalist, globalist, etc. - despite setting out with the intention to prove her own point of view as a business expert.

The t-shirt in question was purchased at a Walgreens in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, out of a bin of screenprinted souvenir apparel. (Admittedly this is one stage of the t-shirt's life I would've liked to have seen explored slightly more in-depth, how the tourism industry that fuels the demand for these goods impacts global trade.) Rivoli was able to discern from a look at the tag the location of origin of her shirt - the t-shirt's tropical design was applied at Sherry Manufacturing in Miami, and the shirt itself was created and assembled in China. In this case, the production information was made readily accessible to the author through the item's packaging, but not all companies practice this brand of honesty with their consumers. I am curious how a similar investigation conducted on a product with more secretive origins would unfold.

A call to one of Sherry's many blank t-shirt suppliers, Shanghai Knitwear, revealed that the fibers of the t-shirt consist of cotton grown in Lubbock, Texas. The United States has long dominated the global cotton supply, despite the low barriers to entry that typically accompany the raw materials market.  American cotton enterprises have always taken low roads to generate a massive, controllable labor force (first through slavery, then sharecropping practices that exploited poor farmers, then the company towns that dictated the lives of field workers), in addition to maintaining a headstart in agricultural and technological innovation, legislation, and subsidies that benefit the nation alone. Lubbock, Texas in particular has a stronghold within the industry, as its history and location next to a major technological university have turned it into a Silicon Valley of sorts for cotton, and has managed to obtain control over every aspect of cotton production from trade law to the actual weather. With all of this in mind, it is easy for us to say that globalization and free trade are the solution to the world's problems - it would open the necessary floodgates to monopolize industries throughout the entire world. 

Rivoli not only follows her t-shirt's travels all the way to its manufacturing zone in China, where the Shanghai Knitwear Number 36 factory resides - she traces its lineage back through the history of clothing production. The common thread running through her exploration of the textile industry's history seems to be the exploitation of marginalised groups, particularly young female workers. The first cotton mills in New England profited off of poor working conditions for young schoolgirls. Though the center of garment manufacturing has changed many times in the past, this constant has not - Southern mills exploited young girls and disenfranchised sharecroppers, Hong Kong mills exploited young girls and famine victims, Asian sweatshops exploited young women in large numbers, and so on. 

Today's mills in China take advantage not only of young women, but of the struggles they faced following the end of the Cultural Revolution as well as the extremely low wages that are merely a percentage point of what factory workers make in the United States. The political climate combined with the sheer size of the nation will most likely ensure its place in "the race to the bottom" for quite sometime. However, the exploitation of these young women and girls does not necessarily equate to their oppression - many of them consider these jobs a stepping stone to economic liberation, gaining autonomy and elevating their platforms in society. In fact, Rivoli claims that the other constant throughout the history of the industry is that  rural young girls vastly prefer their jobs in the sweatshop to life back home on the farm. Rivoli then proposes the solution that rather than eliminate these sweatshops and the race to the bottom entirely, activists work to change the rules of the race and raise the bottom, improving life and working conditions for these girls with few other alternatives.

In addition to concerns about ethical labor, proponents of globalization should be mindful of environmental concerns caused by their policies. Though global free trade can be beneficial to the earth as it raises national capital that can be allotted to environmental programs and uuality, it is possible to do much more harm than good - especially when all the factories, transportation, energy and emissions required to make globalization possible are taken into consideration.

Travels of a T-shirt response: First Half.

This book is a very interesting read. Usually, when a book is trying to analyze a specific subject, they focus on many things. In other words, they cover a mile in length, but only an inch deep. Just enough to understand the problem. Rivoli takes the stages of making a T-shirt a mile deep, and a mile across. she leaves very little to assumptions. It is very interesting to see everything that happens and had happened in the past, to be able to make a T-shirt.

Something that really caught most of my interest was the first stage that Rivoli analyses, the cotton industry, and production. it was a shock to find out that the United States is a top producer of cotton. I believed that the cotton industry in the United States died soon after the abolishment of slavery. Another interesting fact, that I found to be new, is the way that the world looked at our subsidies to the agricultural industry as a whole. I understand, from a free market standpoint, how the world might view it as unfair from the part of the United States. From previous classes and articles regarding these subsidies, I understand that at the beginning of their lives, they were not intended for unfair market manipulations. In fact, as diplomats saw the increasing movement of agricultural business to other countries, they saw this as something that might threaten the nation and our security. if the U.S. get in a third World War, the diplomats argued, then it would be better for us to own farming spaces to be able to feed ourselves and not depend on the chance that the country that we are fighting are also our suppliers of wheat and corn. The government kept the farms in business for national security and not unfair advantages.


Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Travels of a T-Shirt Readings

The book, Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy is an interesting tale about the "life cycle" of a typical shirt starting with the cotton being picked in Texas, followed through the sowing process in China, to purchase here in the states, and finally what happens when we give our clothes away and some of them end up in Tanzania.This book points out some interesting things such as America is still leading in the cotton production which is a fact they keep out of the textbooks after slavery ends.

It is mind boggling to think the clothes we wear on our backs have traveled across the world and back just to end up in our possession. To think that the majority of clothing have traveled more than most people have in their lifetimes plus the transformation that the product makes along the way with the cloth being sown in China but not getting a print on the shirt until it ends up back in Miami. It's crazy to think how many people an article of clothing goes through until it ends up in the customers hands, a product that they, the customer will make a personal connection with will never know the exact people who made it for them.

Another interesting topic is how the American population looks down on the textile companies based in third world countries. We have this stigma and I use to have it as well that these women were modern age slave labor and that they must hate their living conditions when in actuality some of these women are grateful for their jobs in the factories since they can raise up money for their families while at the same time better themselves from the farm lifestyle they chose to leave behind since farming is a hard business in China. The book also brings up that this stigma against cheap labor is also a historical one since societies use to complain about the same thing in the past such as the British complaining about cheap cotton from India or the complaints that Americans had when the textile industry moved from the New England states to the South. For some reason people love getting up in arms about cheapening the labor source even though it helps out more people than it hurts in the long run. However I am aware that not all factories have regular labor laws and I do believe in this day and age that even in third world countries everyone should have the most basic labor laws and not be treated as slaves with a paycheck.

My final observation is how Tanzanian men along with other African countries are clothed by a global hand-me-down system where a majority of the unwanted charity ends up in these countries and these people are walking around in the clothes of people from all over the first world that don't know their shirt ended up there. It shows how continuous the life cycle of a shirt really is since we associate the end of clothing "life" as when we as the owner get rid of it however these clothes continue their global trip and heck as long as it's a good piece of clothing it may live five to ten years longer. In conclusion I think it's very intriguing that the people of these African countries gladly take the clothing that we no longer want anymore whether due to the fact that we've outgrown the clothing or simply don't like the style anymore. For someone like me who hates to waste product it is nice to think that some of the clothing I gave away in the past found future use with other people around the world.

Travels of A T-Shirt

This weeks readings dealt with the first two parts of the book Travels of A T-Shirt.  The focus of the book was the author following around a T-Shirt to see all the steps it goes through from start to finish.  The opening of this book was incredibly unique and also gave a lot of insight on the cotton industry in general and how it is run today.

The first part of the book brings us to Lubbock Texas where we are introduce to Nelson Reinsch, a man who is heavily involved in the cotton industry.  We get a background about Nelson and his business, one that has been in the family for quite some time and one that he greatly respects.  That is when we make the first discovery that Lubbock Texas is a heavy producer of the worlds cotton.  This was something that I did not believe at first, but we quickly discover that the reason the United States has maintained its position at the top is because of government subsidies to this market.  Many of these subsidies are higher than poorer countries GDPs and this upsets other cotton producing countries.  This high imbalance keeps US cotton producers at the top and in control, while the rest of the world has to suffer.  The cotton farmers here in the US, especially Mr. Reinsch, have an incredible monopoly in their control.  They have massive amounts of influence in the cotton industry as a whole and almost make the rules themselves.  The one thing that blew my mind was how much Nelson has within the industry.  He has his own cotton farm where he is growing, producing and selling cotton.  He also has various stakes within different business involved in the industry, specifically that using cotton seed for oil.  Nelson has maximized his income from all the cotton that he is producing and is an incredibly intelligent man.  The best part about this all is it is a minimally labor intensive job.  Nelson at one point is quoted saying that he takes naps around noon usually.  The industry itself has become so mechanized, and Nelson is one of many people who has greatly benefitted from this shift in labor.

The second part of the book focused on the Chinese production of the cotton, and how the labor is over in the country.  What I found very interesting was the authors remarks about the way she was treated there.  Her first time visiting the country, she remarked how easy it was for her to gain access into these factories and talk with managers and workers about the business.  She remarks that she was "a nobody".  It was not until her book was published, and she became someone, that things changed for her.  The harsh reality is that the shirt we pay $12 another human being is making for 12 cents.  There is a vast difference in money gained and money spent, and the workers over in China are abused and treated as slaves practically.  The working conditions are harsh, work days are long, the labor force mostly woman because they are seen as less of a threat, and worst of all is their pay.  The money they earn is barely enough to survive, but that's the thing.  What they are earning is enough to keep them alive, enough to give them hope that they can start new again.  That is how these companies get away with all these harsh realities.  What we see as an absolute abuse of workforce is seen as a lifeline for these women.

Another issue that the author touches on briefly in this edition of the book is the environmental hazards that these companies have caused over the years.  It is mentioned that one factory saw an auditor come in to look at the business and it was discovered that they were pumping massive amounts of contaminated water into a local river every day.  This factory was then pouring another set of dangerous set of dye into the water to return it to its "brackish brown" coloring.  All of this was done in order to avoid the cost of properly cleaning its water.  The company had paid people to fluff their numbers to appear normal on their reports.  They were going through all of these extreme measures to try to save as much money as possible.  It even mentions that some companies have these haven factories that are viewed as top of the line in the industry, but do not produce anything because of how expensive it would be.  They are there for show, and then never used for real production.  This second part really showed how horrible some people can be all in the interest of money.

While the first two parts of this book have been very interesting and insightful I feel that the author has looked at it in a very economical mindset.  While we did discuss this briefly in class it is nice to hear that since the first edition she has tried to broaden her research to be more inclusive of all the different aspects.  While this short section on environmental concerns was brief, it is better than nothing.  However, it does seem like this is not an isolated incident and that factories and businesses allover are most likely cutting corners at every possible chance.  It is a sad thing to read about, but unfortunately it is the nature of the business.  Things like this have essentially become the norm and it is no longer unusual to see practices like this being done.

Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy Post

In this week’s readings, we were assigned to the book Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy. The book is about how a T-Shirt goes through the commodity chain in the world, so it starts at its base form, which is cotton, and then sent off to be produced into a T-Shirt and put up for sale.

The first section of the book is about cotton. Taking placing in Texas, the cotton industry booms and produces the most cotton in the world. The U.S. runs the cotton market over smaller, poorer countries, and Oxfam, the international development organization, has a reason why this happens. They state since the government subsidies are higher compared to the rest of the world, even higher than the GDP on the poorer countries trying to compete with the U.S. This could be due to the years of production from the U.S. South that really drove that part of the economy for so many years. In my opinion, the U.S. has this huge monopoly over the cotton industry, and it shows, through my previous example on what subsidies they give to cotton farmers. On top of that, many institutions, like Texas Tech, have some of the best places to study and improve cotton growing, producing and collecting. With these universities having such close proximity to the Texas cotton farmers, they have such a huge advantage over other parts of the world with the amount of research and time put into this plant.


The second section focused on where the cotton went to: China. China is a major part of the world economy, as many raw materials flow into the country and are exported from their factories. The country has so many of these factories because of the cheap labor force that is readily available in the country. There are so many factories, like the Shanghai Number 36 Cotton Yarn Factory, implying there are hundreds of other factories like this, and the workers are usually young women, because the mentality is these women are not as pushy, or want to have benefits that men would want. And, the women see that working in these factories are so much more of an improvement compared to the farm life they usually come from, much like Jiang Lang. These factories also come with the problems of accidents, and much highlighted in the book were from the Industrial Revolution in England, so stories of people getting killed in these factories became common. Even though safety regulations became common place (mostly) around the world, there are still accidents that can happen, so the worker have to be extra careful when working. And this doesn’t include the chemicals and fumes the workers are exposed to everyday, in and out of work. So, either way it hurts the workers’ health. 

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Third Readings

The first reading by James Fallow and Miguel Korzeniewicz, was very interesting for me. Fallow talks about the factory culture that is present on the mega factories that are located in China. As Fallow presents this culture, it is shocking for a developed country reading to see it as repressive and abusive, by the government to allow such treatment by companies to their people, and I completely understand how one can come to that conclusion with what is presented. I believe that we have a certain bias, because we have not experienced the lives that those people working in.

I saw a documentary in YouTube, that was based in one of these factories in China. In the documentary tittle "Factory City: EUPA", which was aired by the Discovery Channel, it shows a more in depth  life of the factory workers, how they live and what do they think. Many of the people in the factory is thankful for the factory, because their life is a lot better than with would be with out that job. I believe that we, in the advance world, tend to see them and compare them to us. I think that it would be a more fair comparison to the United States in our industrial era. The similarities are about the same. China is a developing country, we were just able to move earlier than them as a whole. I believe that later, there would be a push by the workers to a better treatment and better working conditions.

In a way follows to a way to Korzeniewiz essay, with Nike's model. I believe that history repeats itself, and this is not any different than the invention of the assembly line that Ford created. At some point people are going to find a way to make the company be responsible for the working conditions of their factories, either by the people working on them, or by the consumer buying their products.  the setting is different, because is now worldwide as oppose to  a single country. What I do find striking about the second essay is that a company as big as Nike, does not own any of their manufacturing plants. When I imagine Nike as company, or any big company, I imagine massive factories with their logo in the outside and workers with Nike shoes as uniforms. its is also striking they are able to maintain their reputation for quality. Many people in my generation buy their shoes for hundreds of dollars because of their coolness factor and quality. Yet, I would imagine that even after all the quality control, it would be hard to maintain good quality if the factories move so often.

The radio show, ties very well to my theory that people are going to start pushing back to companies, at least in a global scale. Cambodia, seem like they are struggling, and they are very dependent on the U.S. market to keep their practices. The future is uncertain to the stability of the Cambodian manufacturing sector, because of how hard they are are getting hit, but I do think they might serve as an example to future republics that would like to follow the same philosophy. This is an potential example of people pushing back, in this example by the consume. People that support the philosophy of Cambodia can pick their clothes over the competitor. this might seem impossible is a economy that is guided by low prices, but is something that Americans are taking more of a look and actually helping by putting their consumption towards that philosophy. I believe that the road to better business practice and worker treatment  world wide will change for the better. It might take many years and struggle, but if our history is any indications, we as a world, will be better off.

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Readings/TAL Response

Economic globalization often comes at the cost of the wellbeing of developing nations. Though we in the United States rely on the manufacturing labor of these nations to retain our status as the world's leading economy and one of the world's most developed nations, the struggles faced by their working populations are under-represented in our news and media.

One such nation, Cambodia, is a relatively new player in the global economy but has managed to capture a decent share of the garment manufacturing industry. Corporations such as the GAP have revolutionized the commercial landscape of the developing nation, and clothing factories account for almost all of the nation's exports. America is possibly their biggest customer, yet most Americans have no idea when their clothes come from Cambodia, let alone the nuances of the nation's economic climate. After a trade deal with the United States, Cambodia instituted legislation that entailed some of the most progressive, ethical labor laws in not just the developing world but the world at large - culminating in an extremely rapid growth of the nation's industry. After the trade deal ended, however, these laws became economically unsustainable, and the nation was forced to attempt negotiation with the United States government once again, a country that was all but completely unfamiliar with Cambodia's issues.

The other developing nation mainly discussed in the readings, one we're all a little more familiar with, is China. Though China possesses the world's third largest national economy, it is still very much a developing nation in other respects. In earlier class discussions, I have been curious as to how this could be the case - I assumed it could be mostly attributed to the sheer size of the labor force. However, another contributing factor has come to light after reading these chapters. Chinese manufacturing districts are operating at hundreds of times the size they once were 25 years ago and, at least in the case of Shenzen, under very few restrictions. In fact, labor regulations in China are nearly opposite those in Cambodia, with employees working extremely long shifts for very little pay. Unfortunately, this arrangement is much more sustainable in terms of global trade.

Widespread unawareness of these conditions in other nations may be due in large part to the disconnect between the realms of manufacturers and consumers. There is an epidemic mental divide between what we buy and where it comes from. The prevalence of corporate outsourcing only serves to distend this gap - Nike is simultaneously famous for both its unethical practices with manufacturing in other nations and its inspiring, all-star marketing campaigns.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Reading 3: The Globalization Reader and Radio Show: David and Goliath

This week's readings paired very well with the radio show we were assigned to listen to.  I began with the readings (in chronological order) from The Globalization Reader and followed the chapters with the radio show.  The juxtaposition formed between the working conditions spoke of in the readings compared to the conditions in Cambodia raised a moral question of labor laws for me.  It seemed to me like I wasn't getting the complete reality of the poor conditions in Chinese manufacturing factories, even though what I was reading seemed harsh and unfair.  I was shocked when I compared said conditions to the fair labor offered in Cambodia.  The moral question raised to me by the assignments this week was one of, simply speaking, quantity over quality.

Is it in a company's best interest to offshore a bulk of the products to these low-wage sweat shops in Asia and make quick profits instead of promoting worker's rights and company ethics?  I'd like to think it's not. The companies that market their increased interest in improving factory conditions for workers, in my opinion, offer not only a better product overall but a moral choice to the consumer based upon the commonality of humanity.  I would much rather pay a few extra dollars for a shirt that is coming from places such as Cambodia then to support the mistreatment of workers making products cheap for me.

That leads me to my next discussion about how corporations are able to shift their offshoring practices based on labor costs, quality, and relations.  Nike, for example, so easily shifted a bulk of it's manufacturing solely based upon lower-labor costs.  I've seen this first hand in Costa Rica when I traveled.  The town where I stayed was a hub for new construction and tourism.  Instead of locals being hired to do the work at reasonably low costs, the foreign construction companies opted to hire Nicaraguans instead due to their dirt-cheap labor costs.  I believe this is a negative and adverse effect of a global economy and in order to change it there must be thoughtful changes made in politics of global governance.

Throughout completing the assigned readings and listening to the radio show I was able to conclude that the speakers all seemed to relate in their writings because workers rights and fair labor were important topics in each assignment.  Simply speaking, globalization is the small percentage of the wealthy controlling and profiting from the rest of us.  Countries such as Cambodia and Syria must respond and react to the policies and economic influences of the developed countries.  It's not ideal, but it seems like these developing countries aren't receiving a fair chance at creating their own economy.  Instead, capitalism and free-trade is forever surrounding them and they can either play the game or reap the consequences.

Readings 3

The focus of chapter 20 is about the factories and what they are like. One thing that I found interesting was the first factory that was mentioned which was Foxconn's factory in Guangdong province, China. The factory is massive and hundreds of thousands of workers. The company has dorms for their employees and feeds them. The company however providing the bare minimum of these resources. The reading also talks about how the companies in china have allowed production to become cheaper. It also mentions that people come from rural areas to "escape poverty" but do not actually make it out of poverty. It was also interesting that many companies outsource so that they  do not have to pay for the factories to be built or to maintain them. They make contracts with companies in other countries and then sell the product with their logos. Many people do not mind doing the fast paced labor but they do it because it is not as hard as the farm work. The other benefit of outsourcing products other than the cheap labor is because then the factory gets the raw materials and the company out sourcing does not.

 Chapter 21 talks about footwear and it's effects on globalization and how the prices have greatly changed over the last 28 years and have become much more expensive. It is amazing that shoes have become so expensive when the cost of making the shoe is much less than what they are selling them for so the company makes a large profit. For companies like Nike who have become extremely popular are charging $60 dollars and up for shows that cost them much less. With the increased popularity and the high price of their shoes they are making a lot of money. There are millions of atheletes in the world and famous ones are sponsored by companies like Nike; many people see their idols wearing Nike so they start to as well. The moral of this reading is that companies like Nike are making millions by outsourcing their products to extremely poor countries where people will work for less than a dollar an hour and still provide quality products. It also shows that companies make a lot of money off of the exploitation of the workers. Companies make millions by selling "technological innovations" which a majority of the time do not actually work like with the thousands of different types of Nike shoes, but people see their idols wearing them and the cool kids wearing them, so then they want them. Nike sells on the idea that normal people want to do extraordinary things, and they believe by wearing Nike brand they can accomplish this.
It is interesting that even though people in countries like Cambodia are fighting for the right to fair wages and to be able to establish themselves in the global market, they are shot down because of the interest of big companies. People should be encouraging the growth of these places and people but they cannot seem to get over greed and their own special interests.

Reading 3

The readings and video that was watched today in class discussed issues with factories. Basically, what I got out of it was corporations suck and are unfair. Companies who own the factories in developed countries have trouble with workers who believe that they should earn more for their work. Unlike in developing countries, employees with work for less just to make living doable.

The film discussed the problems with corporations. The ugly truth about corporations is that they will do everything to stay around. Like people in developing countries, they must do what they must to stay around. People in poorer countries will work for less for strenuous hours just to take care of themselves and family. They know that they are working in unfair circumstances but, they are better off than on the street without basic living commodities. The companies in these places know this but, continue to be unfair because they are receiving more money instead of rightfully losing it to their workers.

Throughout all the trouble that is caused by corporations, they don't appear to be changing. One would think that learning from others mistakes is common sense. It's not like there is one giant corporation controlling every factory in the world. These corporations are intertwined in each other world because they are based in the someone, the business world. With unfair wages, in both developing and developed countries, employees will only become more angry than they have before.

People not only have to think of themselves but they think of their families. Along with their families, their communities are at stake. Corporations and factories are sometimes seen as the heart of a community. To keep the heart pumping you need workers. To keep the community stable you need jobs. The issue rises with the workers expressing their need for more money or cheaper living expenses.

I found that from the video in class and from the readings that corporations are ugly. They don't seem to understand that living in developing countries isn't easy. Living expenses rise which makes it difficult to enjoy a safe life. They don't understand that to keep a business around that they must offer workers something that doesn't make them hate working there. Keeping the workers happy will keep the business around. Eventually the factories in developing countries will see this when employees start to strike over unfair wages. Corporations will do anything to stay around whether thats taking advantage of its employees or the 14th amendment.

Readings Week Three

The readings talk about how a lot of globalized products such as sneaker and MP3 players are made in the third world countries of Asia due to the fact that they are still developing countries and labor there is cheaper than in other countries. This is due to the fact that many of these countries hit a bad crisis back in 1997 that resulted in many businesses taking their labor forces over there due to the fact that people were desperate for work. One country that has made capital from outside businesses is China who now makes products that get shipped worldwide resulting in their economy starting to boom up. It is estimated that within the next twenty years China will have the number one economy in the world

The readings also talk about how Nike and other shoe brand industries make their products dirt cheap in these third world countries but charge a pretty penny for the same product in the first world countries. Due to this Nike makes a lot of money for their business but doesn't distribute the wealth equally resulting in the hierarchy system in these companies. They also talk about how Nike owes a lot of their success to social and cultural trends that promote fitness and well being resulting in people wanting to buy sports shoes so they have something to work out in. With Nike being a big name in the shoe industry means that they will always have a customer base to buy their products.

In the online blog "David and Goliath Act Two" Cambodia is discussed since it is the only third world country that has fair labor laws meaning that the workers here have more rights and better pay than the rest of the eastern third world. However that means that products from Cambodia are more expensive than the surrounding countries plus Cambodia has to import a lot of their raw materials meaning that the country is in a struggle right now. Despite the struggle Cambodia still wants to keep these fair labor laws in order to transform the peasant/farmer portion of the population in a successful middle class. However since businesses want cheaper labor Cambodia is losing business resulting in wages going down. Cambodia seems like it has a progressive mindset opposed to their surrounding neighbors but in fact the cheap labor forces of their neighbors is hurting Cambodia's economy which makes you wonder if one country's dreams of progression should just stay in the country's borders or does the ideology need to spread to the surrounding area in hopes of advancement.

It is interesting that most countries in the world rely on these third world Asian companies to cheaply make products for them and still pay top dollar for brand name products despite knowledge of the cheaply made product and underpaid workers. This also puts into perspective what would happen if one day these countries didn't want to make these products anymore due to the fact of economic advancement or them putting their foot down on the labor laws. The result could be catastrophic for many countries resulting in the failing of many companies and the relocation of some businesses resulting in them taking a pay loss for more expensive labor force. Another interesting thing to note is what will China do when they become the number one economic power in the world? Will they still make the cheap products we expect from them at some sort of exportation tax put in place or will they ask a higher price for their products overall?

Readings 2

In chapter 27 "Globalism's Discontents Stiglitz talks about how financial institutions like the IMF impose policies onto developing countries that do not work for them because they are in a different situation. In the "Beneficial Globalism" it is mentioned how some countries like in eastern Asia have developed faster by taking advantage of exchanging of ideas and creating their own products. it is also interesting that Stiglitz talked about how these countries made "globalization work because they had to" and when an outside group became involved they then began to fall into problems that they could not handle themselves.It is alarming however that when these countries begin to improve from the money that was loaned to them and then it causes their economies to crash.

In chapter 33  it is interesting that it is mentioned that organizations like the IMF use more power than most governments do. It is also alarming that a multinational organization that technically has no authority actually uses a lot of authority. The Vreeland's reading also mentioned that international politics are another problem because the more powerful nations can influence policies that are in their best interest. According to Vreeland the IMF has also done damage to developing nation's economies and has cause inequality. Many of the nations cannot balance their payments and afford to pay the interest so these countries are in more debt than they were before they had gotten the loans.

Chapter 34 talks about how a free market does not benefit developing countries because developing countries are not able to compete on the same level as developed countries. There is a need to develop a multilateral system to accompany the hierarchy of the economies. The reading also talks about the problems that the IMF and organizations like it face because of globalization. What I found most interesting is that the change of power causes a dramatic change in policy. As economies grow they gain more power, and the more power they have the more policies they can push.

Readings 3: Intro 164-168, Chapters 20, 21 & T.A.L episode

The readings and the listening section focused on factories.  The factories that have come to be because of globalization, and what they are like.  These factories are the reason we have all the different items we own.  These factories, however, are in less developed countries where conditions and workers rights do not necessarily apply.

The main reason for this outsourcing of work is simply because of money.  For a long time these factories were in the United States, but the issue was paying for work.  In these more developed countries workers expect fair pay for the work they do, and this is troubling for companies who are trying to maximize their profit and output while also saving as much money as possible.  In these less developed countries, workers will work for less wages just to get money in their pockets.  We can draw information from the film we watched in class today.  One of the narrators said something like these companies coming in are almost seen as saviors to these people who have little income and many people to support.  They will gladly take what little pay they are offered because it can pay for enough food to keep them from dying.  However, over time these workers will begin to save up money and start protesting for better wages.  So what happens? The companies shutdown work in that country and move to the next where the cycle restarts.  It is a vicious circle that continually repeats itself because there will always be people somewhere who are desperate for work.  These companies will never struggle to find cheap cost effective work because these workers are quite literally working to save their lives.

It is rather interesting how cruel and unusual this system of work is.  Even more interesting is the idea that a company will quite literally shut down and leave as soon as trouble begins to show.  It is something I never even considered, it was always an assumption that they simply shut down workers demands for better wages.  This also brings about this idea of competition amongst different countries who are selling themselves at the lowest price possible in order to receive the work.  These countries are almost puppets for these various companies who use and abuse their people in order to make the most money possible.  The film we watched in class pointed out how drastic the gap was from what the worker makes compared for how much an item is sold for.  Unfortunately these gaps will always exist in our society because of the nature of the business.  Workers will be exploited every which way, and when they try to gain any form of equality they will be dumped for the next one.

Readings 3 and "David and Goliath"

In the readings and radio snippet assigned to us this week, it seems that the main focus are the factories that came from the increasing spread of globalization. The factories that make the commodities and supplies that we use every day are probably made in one of these manufacturing countries. But, why do companies want to outsource their jobs to other countries, and not from their home country?

The answer goes back to, obviously, cost. Now, cost is a concept that does not only fall onto money. Money is definitely one of the cost that the companies do not want to pay, for example they can outsource the job to China, where a ton of businesses put their jobs to. The companies do not have to pay the workers in China near to the extent of what it would cost to build in a developed country. The workers are payed only cents per product, and barley get by with what they are payed. Some workers are supporting up to 10 people in their family, and with the really low wages, they cannot sustain their family, and people go hungry. These companies, like Nike, don’t really care about what happens to the worker, they are more focused about the product, and how fast they can get the product out to sell. Some people turn to different ways to get the money, which does include activities like prostitution, and some of the managers who try to treat their workers right, are scared of this and try to improve conditions. This only makes the companies want to move their factories, to where people are willing to work for less in money and conditions. The other cost is time. Time is the second biggest thing that the companies look for, and want people to not only have all the time in the world to work, but they also want to products out the fastest. Even managers at the factories love this, because there is nothing that will stop the work, like picking up the kids from school. They know that the workers who are on the job are there until breaks and closing.


Places that try to sway from the status quo of this idea are likely to be left out of the market. Places like Cambodia, who somewhat recently got out of another civil war, are looking to be part of the garment industry, where some places want to treat their workers fairly, with some factories having 3 unions per factory. So, this means that one union could be striking, while the other two unions stay in the factory and work. Companies do not like this, and will leave and try to set up shop somewhere else. And, when Cambodia ask to try to get back into the market, they will be out produced by places like Sri Lanka or Vietnam, and Cambodia is left in the dust. 

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Readings 2

The introduction reviewed the basics about global governance. Attempting to resolve global problems  with "norms, agreements, and institutions"global governance appears to be problematic. The introduction talks about how global governance can be viewed negatively.  Anne-Marie Slaughter believes that government officials are global governors which will eventually lead states to becoming the same. As states become global governors as well they will eventually start dealing with more problems than they had before.

There are also views described, in the introduction, about global governance being natural. These beliefs develop the notion that this phenomena is necessary to a "full-fledged world government". Others believe that it isn't as solid of a plan as it is described to be. These people see the inequalities of global governance. Being an addition to our categorial world, global governance will only add to the problems in the world while trying to find solutions for them.

Chapter 27 seemed interesting because it went over some of the same material as the introduction while introducing new terms. Discussing the views of market fundamentalism and reviewing the benefits and its risks. Joseph E. Stiglitz goes into detail about countries globalizing on their terms versus countries who convert to the outside world.

The countries that globalize in a comfortable manor are considered to be very successful. Contrary to countries who become heavenly influenced by outside forces tend to be unsuccessful. I found it interesting because I can see the similarities with this to life lessons. Moving forward with through any process at your own pace is better than being influenced into decisions that can lead you away from your goal. The negatives involve liberalization and losing money to real-estate ditching. Liberalization of financial and capital markets are believed to be the down side of global governance. The cruising negative results of global governance illustrates that problems will become more and more apparent to countries want liberalization of financial and capital markets.

Chapter 33 reviewed the inequalities of the IMF and what it has done to developing countries. This chapter is also a connection to the movie that was played in class. James Vreeland, writes about how the IMF can be considered as an international credit union that helps the countries that fund its resources. The problem seen with IMF regards the way it aides developing countries. The IMF will help but the countries in need will have to change its policies to fit the IMFs'. An example of this would be the way the IMF helped Jamaica. They gave Jamaica a hand but to help, Jamaica had to cut some of the spending for education.

Personally, I see this occurring everyday. Culture relativistic views will be said by developed countries about developing countries. While this is being done, the developing countries start to convert to or oppose those ideas. From there risks rise, negative ideas are created, and threats to financial situations.

Readings 2

Chapter 27 discusses much of what we talked about in class on Monday together, the pros and the cons when it comes to globalization. Many people all around the world are under the impression that globalization is the only way for humanity to move in the right direction, however, many others disagree. There has been a long history of anti-globalists bringing in a different perspective to globalization as well as many protests condemning the global movement. The degradation of native cultures as well as the increased poverty worldwide are just a couple of the many topics that anti-globalists try to bring awareness to since many of the cons of globalization are not taken into account as much as the pros. Because the "key" to succession in globalization is determined by a country's own pace of change, there has been an unsurmountable amount of inequitable results with many poor nations being unable to keep up with the fast pace change of developing nations. So we have to ask ourselves, is globalization actually promoting growth, or is it promoting the growth of rich nations?

Chapter 33 begins to explain the IMF's role in globalization. Described as an "insurance" for governments against the chances of an economic crisis, the IMF's goal is to stabilize a country's economic crisis and then promote economic growth and the reduction of poverty but according to recent studies, this rarely ever occurs. While many argue that the IMF wasn't made to ensure economic growth, what purpose would addressing the balance of payment problems be if it wasn't to ensure economic growth in the future? With conditionality, governments are required
to follow what the IMF deems as “good” policies in return for the expend of the IMF loan. It seems as if the IMF is favoring governments (such as the U.S) that are receiving large loans and privileged treatment even while failing to comply with the conditions the IMF put in place. There is not much known on why exactly IMF programs have such contrary results than intended, but according to the most recent studies and reviews, the IMF seems to be most effective in addressing balance of payments problems (Vreeland 276). 

And finally, we have chapter 34 which went over the function of the WTO, an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade, as well as the five central challenges it faces. Generally, we have not looked to stress either the juridical or exchange advancement of the WTO, but in reality, to barely concentrate on the WTO as a "vehicle of free trade" with the expectation of complimentary exchange is to totally disregard the focal part of the WTO in providing other global products through critical thinking.

What I mostly got from these readings was the simple fact that the very organizations that may be helping aid in globalization the most, also might be doing the most damage to poor and underdeveloped nations. When it comes to globalization the world is a pie, and its a very unevenly sliced pie with some countries having much more while others have much less. The role the IMF and WTO have in globalization is vital in promoting a free market and economic stability, however, with the unprecedented amount of evidence presented in the chapters, their "vital" role just may be doing the most damage. 

Readings #2

In the second readings, the main focus is in the monetary world organizations, like the IMF and the World Bank. Both Stiglitz and Vreeland are critical to these organizations. Both authors give examples on under-developed countries that had bad side effects due to the policies that were forcibly put in place by the IMF and the World Bank, with some other international organizations.

I personally have mixed feeling about these organizations. In one side, I see the benefits of having institutions that are try to control economies to protect the world from economical crisis. The implementation is a problem, like both authors argues, but I have a problem with is the places from which the power of the institutions come from. We have countries with massive economies that are running the show. these countries are the ones that have better technologies and the strategy in global business as a factory in a developing nation. I am a believer that history repeats itself. when I was reading these articles I got remanded of Europe colonization. I personally feel, that in a way, big countries are using these organizations. 

Readings: pp. 266-269 & chapters 27, 33, & 34

The readings this week really dove into the problems surrounding current systems of global governance.  One of the main themes I encountered throughout reading was that global governance and the groups involved tend to favor the few rich nations over the many poor nations.  Stiglitz talks about how the global trade regulations, set forth by organizations like the IMF, encourage and heighten economic growth for already developed nations and leave developing/underdeveloped nations to compete with the somewhat monopolized markets.  I think that a lot of these global organizations began with good intentions. With more involvement and ties with developed countries whom have interests with transnational corporations, policies become fuzzy and the global governance becomes unbalanced.
Vreeland speaks about the controversies involved with the IMF and it's policies.  After reading his argument I am led to believe that the IMF's policies are heavily influenced by international politics.  Well-off players in the global governance get preferential treatment over the developing nations that are supposed to be receiving help to regain economic stability.  Overall, it seems that the developing nations are getting the short end of the stick to grow the already developed economies.
Capling and Higgott discuss the WTO and the conflicting social and economical issues surrounding the organizations.  The most important thing I took from this reading is that the WTO must find viable solutions to better the commons.  There must not be favored policies for certain nations.  Instead policies must be contingent on the integrity of the organization and it's values.  The WTO does have it's flaws but I believe plays an integral role in the realm of global governance.
In conclusion, the assigned readings this week brought light to the numerous controversies surrounding global governance.  The ties and preferential treatment that the rich and developed countries are a part of must be addressed.  A fair and even playing field must be met by all of the organizations involved to promote a free-market that all economies can benefit from.  I do not have the answers, nor are they easy ones to find, but I believe if all organizations stick to their original basis of development then the policies that come out of them will be beneficial for global economic and political equality.

Second Readings

In the readings assigned to us this week, we looked over the organizations often criticized to be a problem from globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the World Trade Organization (WTO) are organizations that seek to stabilize national economies, from the United States to the Zimbabwe. However, many people have called their actions and decisions to only favor those countries with more money, and in my opinion, these organizations definitely give the benefit of the doubt to wealthier countries.

The first chapter assigned to us to read, 27, gave the authors opinions on globalization, as well as the organizations that are part of this new global phenomenon. The author give the implication that globalization has good and bad effects, with the good found in the rich economies like the United States, and bad is found in the poor countries that get the short end of the stick, and that these organizations will bend the rules for the rich. For example in the text, the WTO has shown huge bias in giving into US suggestions to consider China as a developed country, when in reality China is a low – wage developing country that has a big economy, however it is not yet developed. By doing this, the US was able to dodge some loopholes by trading with a developing country. The author then states that if a developing country that wasn’t rich tried this, the WTO would seriously punish the developing country. And, I agree with the author; there are some unfair advantages that the WTO, IMF and the World Bank give to the richer countries comparted to the poor countries.

The second chapter that we read, chapter 33, focused on the IMF and their doings around the world. The author states in his research that although the IMF has helped out a few countries with their financial struggles, there is little to no evidence that the IMF actually has any big success, with most research pointing to the IMF hurting nations’ economies. The effects of the organization that has its roots in helping stabilize economies that actually hurt economies does not make sense. It goes against their goal, and in turn leaving nations in either regular or negative conditions. The IMF tries to address the problems in the balance of payment, (BOP), and sets up programs that will help mitigate the BOP. However, the IMF has no idea if their program will work, so it’s more of a test to see if it works. My opinion is that the IMF should not be trying out new ideas that may or may not work out, they should stick with what they know will help the country out in the long run.


Finally, chapter 34 discusses the WTO. The WTO, which was officially founded in 1995, helps regulate trade throughout the world. The WTO however, does have to be careful with 5 separate challenges that include different issues concerning the “multipolar nature of the global trade system” (pg. 280), justice and fairness for all of the different partners of the WTO, and policymakers working with the WTO.

Reading Responses

I felt that chapter 27 had some focus in on the film that we watched during class today, but i will approach that topic more when i get to that point.  The author, Joseph E. Stiglitz, had some tremendous insight on the pros and cons of globalization and it it has uniquely molded the world into what we have today.

Stiglitz opens up by discussing the meaning of globalization, and how certain countries see it as the way of the future while others suffer because a select few reap the benefits while many do not.  Stiglitz wants to explore the reason why this is occurring and if there are ways we as a whole can change them.  What Stiglitz concludes is that globalization has meant different things in different places.

He points out that the countries who have succeeded have done so because they did it all on their own, and through their own government.  The countries that have failed in terms of globalization are the ones who let the IMF manage it have faired far worse.  The IMF has pushed a specific agenda on these countries, and for many of them it is one that does not benefit them at all.  Those who do see benefits see them short term, and eventually suffer long term set backs.

The goal of trying to move low productivity workers to high productivity work is instead met with unemployment.  The reason this happens is because job destruction takes place before job creation, and the people are the ones who are left to suffer.  Stiglitz states, "Rather than seeing enhanced growth, the effect is increased poverty."

A connection I noticed from the film was in the agricultural market place.  The film focused on how the country of Jamaica has suffered because of IMF sanctions that it is has faced over the years.  The article discusses how there is not a level playing field in all trade industries.  Industries that developed countries focused on were ones that were not implemented in these impoverished countries, while industries like agriculture, maritime, and construction were seen as unimportant.  The reason being that it would give these countries a comparative advantage.

Stiglitz closes the chapter by stating that while we have come together as a global alliance there is much work that still must be done.  He points to 9/11 unifying us against evil, and while this is fantastic we also need to be unified for something positive.  An alliance that helps reduce poverty, creating a better environment, and one that creates a global society with more global justice.

The main point I got from the other two readings was one of global inequality.  What seems to be the issue is how every country and human can benefit from free trade.  The IMF seems to strike down hard on countries it is trying to help with heavy interest rates, and specific goals a country must meet in order to continue to receive help.  At the same time, representatives from countries have been deadlocked on how to agree on issues of agricultural subsidies and protection.

In my honest opinion I feel that a "Western Ideology" is being thrust upon the world.  Now, the people who do this only see the benefit, but forget to factor in how many countries are still far behind globally.  This issue brings about the problem we see today.  It is almost as if developed countries are looking around and going, "if we were able to do it on our own why can't you?".  There is a clear learning curve for many countries that is not being accepted by the more developed because they have been on top for so long and do not want to give up their positions.  Leveling trade across the board is what is right, but it will never happen because the western world wants control and to relinquish it scares them.  The idea that we could face the same struggles many of these countries face is something that is so terrifying that we must keep an upper hand in some way.  Now this is only personal speculation, but it is what I seemed to formulate from the readings this week.

Readings Response

So far in class round-tables we've mainly discussed the superficial aspects of globalization, particularly corporate globalization - marketing campaigns, box stores, brands known around the world. This is what we're most familiar with, as our lives in the modern world with modern communication technology are so inundated with advertising and corporate imagery, and what we know is what is easiest to talk about.

What we have avoided, to some degree, is discussion of and investigation into the deeper political and economic issues that accompany globalization. I think we as classmates tend to shy from these things because we are not yet particularly educated about them - if I'm correct, most of us were instructed in middle or high school to be skeptical of what we see in the media and in advertising (and how to be skeptical of it), but not so much to question greater political authority or the world economy.

I believe this will start to change now that we have read a little bit about the impact of world organizations like the IMF, the WTO and the World Bank. For example, one thought I took away from the chapter about the IMF is that we tend to approach these matters from our own limited, ethnocentric worldview. Globalization at a surface-level understanding is the breaking down of barriers between nations in order to facilitate global communication and trade. It's about bringing people together around the world, and we're raised to believe that that's always a good thing.

However, some nations hold more power in the global sphere than others. When these nations have a stake in global government that is proportional to that power, they have the authority to impose their will onto other smaller, less powerful nations - sometimes in their own self-interest, sometimes in a misguided attempt to raise these nations up by reshaping them in their own image. Even when intentions are good, the approach can be more harmful than beneficial.

Take the conditionality of an IMF loan. A nation in economic crisis can opt into an IMF program that will enable them to borrow a sum of money with which to cover the damages. Attached to these loans are conditions that the nation must adhere to in order to receive them - conditions that could ultimately worsen the effects of the crisis. For example, an IMF loan could entail that the country open one of its industries to international trade. Then the most powerful US corporation enters the nation's market and pushes out all of the local business, disenfranchising an entire industry's worth of workers. Oftentimes, participation in an IMF program ends in a short-term solution followed by long-term detriments.

The World Bank similarly invests in developing nations while simultaneously furthering its agenda of international trade. And the WTO struggles to reach agreements on the governance of international trade because each of its major players have conflicting interests. Globalization, then, may be most effective when balanced with sustainability and a mutual respect for differences. Perhaps, as is stated in chapter 27, this could be achieved by uniting in the name of a positive purpose, rather than against a negative force.

Readings 2

In the current world there is no global government set up meaning that all the countries of the world don't have to report to anyone but themselves. However with the spread of globalization and more countries interacting with each other more often in the past new problems have arose that deal with more than one country and there is no global policies set into stone so the countries have to work together with their problems.

This is where the concept of global governance comes up. Governance defined as "organizing collective action" which in turn "entails the establishing of institutions". These organizations set out to have agreements between countries on the matters of trading, banking, and global environmentalism so that countries can easy work with one another and not get into violations on what other countries think is right while others disagree. An example of one of these organizations is the United Nations which looks over human rights in all of the countries that are a part of it. It keeps a global law on how to treat other human beings and if some countries need to change or update their policies on how their citizens are being treated.

In my opinion I think it is great that we are starting this concept of global governance because it unites the world on issues of humanity and how our future is going to be shaped by the decisions of other countries. However I don't feel we should ever have a set global government due to the fact that some countries already are more powerful than others and with a global government they would achieve more of a footing over these other countries and could end up passing policies that favor them and not the smaller countries. Still we need some universal laws that all countries respect such as murder is wrong, tobacco can cause cancer, and other common stuff but for the most part let the countries do their own thing and report only to themselves.

Tuesday, February 7, 2017

Siemens

Siemens was founded in Germany in and originally was called Siemens and Halske in 1847. Siemens globalization started when they had built the first long distance telegraph line in Europe. This allowed people to con nectar from the different countries with in europe.
The comany expanded into Japan in 1890 and had started making electric generators, light bulbs, and trains. The success of the company and new innovations they had created were desired all over the world.
Siemens was criticized after world War II because they were accuseed of helping nazis.
These days Siemens is a huge global player. Siemens works in a number of categories like energy, medical equipment, transportation, and buildings. Siemens covers a vast field and is located in many countries.
When you go on to their site it is very clean and organized and has a very relaxed color scheme. The first thing that pops up is about infrastructure and how wit has better infrastructure we can have a better cleaner world. The website also puts clean and better energy at a top priority
I would say their image calls for a better environment and innovations. Siemens really makes people think about better options for technologies that would be better for the world. One major contribution towards the envrioment is all of the various alternate energy options such as windmills or hydrogenerators.

Monday, February 6, 2017

H&M Globalization Image

Formally known as Hennes & Mauritz, H&M is a Swedish retail company that has over 4,300 stores around the world. The Swedish original started to globalize in the 1960s once stores began popping up in Norway, then Denmark, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. What made H&M so great that 5 nations are pleading for more stores? The clothing. The clothes sold at H&M are simple to me but could be defined as NY chic. Business style, street style, comfortable, event-ready, and reasonably priced, H&M supports anyones style.

When you go to H&M.com you see an ad for a sale (sweet!!), followed by a beautiful model who is advertising basics. If you continue to scroll down from the first page you see products ranging from various prices, then a menswear ad followed by baby clothes and home decor. Passing by the other sweet enticing deals, an ad appears for recycling clothes. H&M offers and encourages clothes to be recycled to their stores so they can resuse them. No matter the condition or company that they belong to, H&M will take them in. A few more ads down the homepage, you will see H&M conforming to the technology worlds culture, apps.

Zipping to the top of the page and looking to the right corner, the country from which your server is in should be listed. I clicked on the tab that says "United States | USD", I came to the page that lists all the countries that have an H&M store. There is a store on every continent (except for the obvious).  The interesting part about this page is the tiny black shopping bags next to a variety of countries but not all. The shopping bags mark if a country has e-commerce or if they do not.

Okay now we know that H&M began in Sweden as a women's store and is now selling clothes for everyone, even your home, and they have stores on almost every continent how else do they globalize their image? From their magazine of course, H&M has an online magazine and a print magazine. The online version of this magazine has an abundant of features ranging from fashion to culture.

Gibson Globalization

When one first logs onto to the Gibson website not only does one encounter an array of guitars for sale but also the globalization of the Gibson guitar brand. In the top right corner of the screen there is a support group for both US and European to separately call if they have a problem with their guitar or anything along those lines. However the main draw of the main site is a link to all the new 2017 models that are available from the Gibson USA company. Gibson is world known as an American guitar brand with their current headquarters in Nashville TN with some of their more famous models (Les Paul, SG) being staples in rock and roll history.

Speaking of rock and roll history there is another link on the main site for the Gibson Memphis line. All the guitars on this part of the site are semi-hollow acoustic electrics which were the popular guitars back in the 1950's (Chuck Berry and B.B. King are well known players of the ES-335 model). This ties with historical globalization since these guitars are marketed with both the city of Memphis where blues music was the popular music of the town back in the 1940's and the historical aspect of these guitars being the ones that revolutionize rock and roll music for generations to come.

A part of the site that I found interesting is when one finally makes a choice to buy an instrument online it will ask for the customers region, country, and then finally state. What surprised me about the purchase menu is that it wasn't automatically set for a US customer like a lot of other online dealers with one of their first selections for countries is the US. Gibson realizes it has global customers and it doesn't want to alienate anyone so it stays neutral in the customer fill out screen. Plus it gives people the opinion on whether or not the customer wants to pick the instrument from a dealer (Guitar Center, Ma and Pap guitar store) or if they want to order it online to be shipped to their house meaning Gibson doesn't get straight profit from their product sales.

Overall Gibson has a very globalized approach to selling their products while still promoting the American sound and style that has made their guitars a popular product of musicians of different generations

http://www.gibson.com/

Apple Inc. Globalization


It's the new norm to have an iPhone in today's society and with the great success of the apple industry, it's not just an American norm. When you first start up a new iPhone it says "hello" in many different languages appealing to a wide range audience. On the Apple Inc website, apple services are offered in 127 countries across the globe having all types of buyers from North America, to South America, Europe and more.

When first introduced to the website it has a nice sleek not too bright layout displaying the iPhone, Apple Watch, and Macbook Pro.  It is the same as well for when you click the other countries.  Apple is in a high competition with not only Android phones, but windows laptops as well. Some people may choose apple because their software is hard to obtain virus' and everything is simple.

Apple was created in 1977 and was actually on top when it came to electronics until windows introduced the PC in the 90's. Apple didn't become popular again until late 90's when it introduced the MAC. Since then Apple has been a competitor in the computer industry and later in life phones were turning into mini computers allowing apple to obtain another market and simply dominate it.

Apple is a means of communication especially with facetime in other countries which is why I believe it is so successful. I personally have a friend who is in Italy and our only way to call each other is to facetime from his ipad instead of him sitting at home on his desktop on Skype.

Apple has delivered with their slogan "Thinking Different" because their company is the most elite on the market right now coming out with new products every year advancing modern technology to ways people never thought of.

Nintendo Globalization

When someone mentions Nintendo, images of iconic characters are processed through the brain, like Mario, Link, and all of the Pokémon. Nintendo has reached into the far corners of the earth with their family friendly games, and still to this day have some of the most anticipated releases around the globe for their products.

In regards to globalization, people around the world know and enjoy the video games around the world. So, when observing the site, all of the classic characters are found, no matter what link you click. Some of the other things that I noticed on the site is that it is trying to support a connected world. This is evident through the Miiverse, which lets you connect and chat with other players throughout the world at a moment’s notice. Also, the site lets you choose what region you are living in, which helps you find where the nearest Nintendo product is located. By choosing this, it also accordingly adjust the price for the product that you want to buy, so you know how much the product is before you go out to any part of the globe.


The Japanese based company has done well for itself by making Nintendo a staple in video game history. In any part of the world, you have a high chance of finding someone recognizing the iconic characters in a moment’s notice. 

Tyson Globalization Image

If you've ever been into a grocery store, which I'm almost positive you all have, you have most likely seen Tyson meat products. They're not only a very popular meat company but also the largest producer of beef, chicken, and pork worldwide. So on top of providing the most meat in the United States, they also export meat to 129 other countries (that's A LOT of meat folks). Now, of course Tyson alone is not producing all of this meat, it owns many other smaller meat chains as well. Some popular ones are Jimmy Dean and Hillshire Farm.

When you go to Tyson's website you are greeted with a happy family enjoying a barbecue, a perfect picture and idea that has been selling mass quantities of meat for decades now. They also provide additional information such as "their story", innovation, the different brands they have, as well as a "responsible food" page. They also include a page called "environment" which I assumed would describe what they're doing to help the environment but it mentioned nothing of the sorts. This is most likely due to the fact that animal agriculture is single handedly the most environmentally destructive industry on the planet (also the leading cause of climate change). They do however mention that they have reduced how much water they used by 2.9% since 2004. This is important and hopefully is a trend that continues with the globalized company since animal agriculture uses the most water on the planet and is depleting water resources worldwide at a staggering rate. Also included on the website includes information on the different products sold by the company all around the world.

Because there are different dietary and flavor demands all over the world, Tyson has become quite diversified in the products they provide. This means the Tyson products you find in America probably won't be quite the same as the ones you will find in China or Brazil. While Tyson is a predominately animal meat based company, there are many parts of the world, such as India, where consuming animal flesh is extremely frowned upon in their culture due to ethical concerns. Being a globalized company, Tyson know's it's important to provide food for as many people possible, therefore started providing vegan and vegetarian "meat" options in the countries where animal meat is rarely consumed (and even the countries where it is). Not only that but because of the ever growing vegan movement, in 2016, Tyson also invested in the new vegan meat company "Beyond Meat" which has been a major success nationwide and is expected to go global.

Tyson is a major company that has an immense influence on the world we live in(and not necessarily in a good way). But, they have managed to globalize to 130 different countries all while providing a plethora of different food products in each country which really is quite a significant achievement for the brand. I can only hope for the sake of the people, planet, and animals, this company continues its globalization in a positive manner and makes changes to the brand to live up to the standards and ideas it already perpetuates.

                                        

                                   

                                   

And Now Presenting Dow...

Image result for dow with flags

When you go into the webpage of Dow, and you go into the About Dow tab in the bottom, you are greeted with a picture that shows company's logo as well as the flags countries they operate. From the beginning Dow wants the reader to know that they are a global company.  In their comments, Dow presents itself as a company that cares about the consumer and their investors. They present the company as a great place to build a career as well as a productive capable company to invest on. In the website, they present pictures of happy workers as well as a bunch of happy business men. when referring to their mission and work, Dow describes itself as an essential company working for the progress of humanity and business, as well as future products. They argue that their products and work are helping the world to be in a better tomorrow. Lastly, the company wants to express their charity efforts. They show pictures of an initiatives in developing countries as well as education grants offered to future partners or employees.